Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of a Bio-Based Plasticizer for PVC: Epoxidized Acetylation Cardanol

Document Type : Research Article


1 Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), Nanjing 210042, P.R. CHINA

2 College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, P.R. CHINA


A bio-based plasticizer, epoxidized acetylation cardanol, was synthesized from cardanol, which experienced acetylation reaction and epoxidation reaction. Chemical structure of epoxidized acetylation cardanol was characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR. Plasticized PVC films (PVC-P) were prepared by casting method with 40%wt of epoxidized acetylation cardanol as a plasticizer. Thermal stability and plasticizing effect of PVC and PVC-P were investigated. The results presented that epoxidized acetylation cardanol enhanced the thermal stability of PVC-P and decreased glass transition temperature (Tg) from 81.9°C to 1.6°C. The tensile strength decreased from 26.60 MPa to 8.06 MPa, the elongation at break increased from 167.21 % to 905.44%. All of the results indicated that epoxidized acetylation cardanol could be used as the main plasticizer for preparing flexible PVC materials.


Main Subjects

[2] Saeki Y., Emura T., Technical Progresses for PVC Production, Prog. Polym. Sci., 27: 2055-2131 (2002).
[3] Tickner J.A., Schettler T., Guidotti T., McCally M., Rossi M., Health Risks Posed by Use of Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) in PVC Medical Devices: A Critical Review, Am. J. Ind. Med. 39:100-111(2001).
[4] Agarwal D.K., Lawrence W.H., Turner J.E., Autian J., Effects of Parenteral di‐(2‐ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) on Gonadal Biochemistry, Pathology, and Reproductive Performance of Mice, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 26:71-84(1989).
[6] Yang  P., Yan J., Sun H., Fan H., Chen Y., Wang F., Shi B., Novel Environmentally Sustainable Cardanol-Based Plasticizer Covalently Bound to PVC Via Click Chemistry: Synthesis and Properties, RSC Adv. 11: 1-3 (2013).
[7] Lardjane N., Belhaneche-Bensemra N., Massardier V., Migration of New Bio-Based Additives from Rigid and Plasticized PVC Stabilized with Epoxidized Sunflower Oil in Soil, J. Polym. Res., 20: 209-219 (2013).
[8] Sun T., Thom R., The Effect of Epoxidized Safflower Oil on the Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride Films,
J. Elastom. Plast. 42: 129-137(2010).
[9] Palacios O.Y.S., Narvaez P.C.R., Jean-Pierre C.C., Pardo M.C., Fonteix C., Low-Molecular-
Weight Glycerol Esters as Plasticizers for Poly (vinyl Chloride)
, J. Vin. Add. Tech., 20: 65-71 (2014).
[10] Jia P., Zhang M., Liu C., Hu L., Zhou Y., Properties of Poly (vinyl chloride) Incorporated with a Novel Soybean Oil Based Secondary Plasticizer Containing a Flame Retardant Group, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., (2015), DOI: 10.1002/APP.42111
[12] Zhang L., Zhang M., Zhou Y., Hu L., Synthesis of Rigid Polyurethane Foams with Castor Oil-Based Flame Retardant Polyols, Ind. Crop. Prod. 52: 380-388 (2014).
[14] Liu C., Li J., Lei W., Zhou Y., Development of Biobased Unsaturated Polyester Resin Containing Highly Functionalized Castor Oil, Ind. Crop. Prod. 52: 329-337(2014).
[16] Liu Z., Chen J., Knothe G., Nie X., Jiang J., Synthesis of Epoxidized Cardanol and Its Antioxidative Properties for Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 4: 901-906 (2016).
[17] Chen J., Liu Z., Jiang J., Nie X., Zhou Y., Murray E. R.E., A Novel Biobased Plasticizer of Epoxidized Cardanol Glycidyl Ether: Synthesis and Application in Soft Poly(vinyl chloride) Films, RSC Adv. 5: 56171-56180 (2015).
[19] Soudais Y, MogaL., Blazek J., Lemort F.,Coupled DTA-TGA-FT-IR Investigation of Pyrolytic Decomposition of EVA, PVC and Cellulose, J.Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis.78: 45-57(2007).
[20] Yao Q., Wilkie C. A., Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Presence of Polystyrene, J. Vinyl. Addit. Technol., 7: 26-36( 2001).
[23] Bocqué M., Voirin C., Lapinte V., Caillol S., Robin J.J., Petro-Based and Bio-Based Plasticizers: Chemical Structures to Plasticizing Properties, J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem., 54: 11-33 (2016).
[25] Jia P., Zhang M., Hu L., Feng G., Bo C., Zhou Y., Synthesis and Application of Environmental Castor Oil Based Polyol Ester Plasticizers for Poly(vinyl chloride), ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 3(9), 2187-2193 (2015).